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This module addresses what is an airborne gravity system. The module starts with a reference to gravity variation and acceleration. It takes you through the different types of gravity systems. Simply, there are two types of highly sensitive accelerometers used to measure the earth’s gravity field. The instruments and the calibration required are discussed.  The module concludes with applications when airborne gravity surveys are appropriate, and what are the factors required to design an effective survey for the target sought.

Learning Objectives

After completing this module, participants will come to understand the following topics:

  • What is Gravity Variation?
  • Units Of Acceleration,
  • Different Types Of Gravity Systems Namely Absolute and Relative,
  • Gravimeter Calibration,
  • Applications for Airborne Gravity Surveys,
  • Survey Design, and
  • Types Of Flight Surfaces.
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There are several standard corrections that are applied to any gravity data set. The module starts with  a summary on what is a gravity system and a description of the two main types: absolute and relative. We review how gravity can measure density and/or structural variations. That leads you the main objective of the module which is to discuss the different standard gravity corrections that are applied to all gravity data sets: the theoretical ellipsoidal gravity (latitude correction), atmospheric effect, height (Free Air) correction, and terrain effects (Bouguer correction). And continue through the additional gravity corrections that are applied specifically to airborne surveys: the Eötvös correction and removing of the aircraft motion.

Learning Objectives

After completing this module, participants will come to understand the:

  • Standard Gravity Corrections Applied to Airborne and Ground Surveys, and
  • Additional Airborne Only Gravity Corrections.
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What should quality control procedures do? They should ultimately check for errors or conditions that are known to cause deterioration in the data quality. They should identify any processing errors, and quantify noise levels and resolution to ensure they meet contract specifications. This module delineates quality control techniques. Note that each gravity system will have its own set of quality control parameter guidelines, and the quality control check used must be specific to the gravity system being used.

Learning Objectives

After completing this module, participants will understand quality control techniques that can be used for monitoring airborne gravity data, such as:

  • Drift Monitoring using Static Testing,
  • Repeatability using Test Lines,
  • Intersection Statistics,
  • Leveling Corrections,
  • Line Deviations,
  • Horizontal And Vertical Accelerations due to Aircraft Motion,
  • Oversampled Grids, and more.
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Most of the lenders will require environmental and structural due diligence or assessment performed for commercial real estate transactions in United States. Based on the findings of these assessments, lenders can negotiate the loan amount, rate or simply deny the loan, similar to home inspection. The American Society of Testing and Material (ASTM) have provided guidelines for conducting Environmental and Structural Assessments. This module provides a general summary of different types of due diligence assessments and their purpose.

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Most the lenders will require Environmental and Structural Due Diligence or Assessment performed for commercial real estate transactions in the United States. Based on the findings of these assessments, lenders can negotiate the loan amount, rate or simply deny the loan, similar to home inspection. The American Society of Testing and Material (ASTM) has provided guidelines for conducting Environmental and Structural Assessments. This module provides details about Phase I Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) and their purpose.

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Most the lenders will require Environmental and Structural Due Diligence or Assessment performed for commercial real estate transactions in the United States. Based on the findings of these assessments, lenders can negotiate the loan amount, rate or simply deny the loan, similar to home inspection. The American Society of Testing and Material (ASTM) has provided guidelines for conducting Environmental and Structural Assessments. This module provides details about Phase II Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) and their purpose.

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Private and public sector entities seeking to do business in the United States must comply with environmental, health and safety regulations determined by each individual state. This module provides a general summary of environmental compliance requirements and the state governing agencies.

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All types of facilities in the private and public sector, including cities, schools, farms and industrial facilities generating domestic or industrial wastewater are required to obtain and maintain a Water Quality Permit. The permit requires the facility to treat the wastewater to the quality specified by the governing agency. The discharge of treated wastewater into or adjacent to water within a state must be authorized by the State’s Environmental Agency.

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Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is widely used in geological, hydrological, archaeological, engineering and forensic investigations to detect buried objects in the subsurface. GPR has arguably the highest spatial resolution of any geophysical imaging method, approaching centimeters under the right conditions.

Learning objectives

After completing this module, you will learn:

  • Principles of operation of the GPR system
  • The physical properties that influence the GPR signals
  • GPR data acquisition using different systems
  • GPR data processing and interpretation
  • GPR applications and case studies
  • GPR advantages and limitations
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Electrical resistivity techniques are routinely used to solve hydrogeological (e.g., finding water bearing units (aquifers)), environmental (e.g., delineating groundwater plumes), and engineering (e.g., locating subsurface voids) problems.  Electrical methods measure the flow of electric current in the ground thereby investigating electrical properties of the subsurface.  The resulting subsurface geoelectrical image (represented as changes in electrical resistivity with depth) can be interpreted in terms of lithology (different rock types) and their properties such as porosity, saturation, and the chemistry of the fluids filling the pores (Figure 1).  Therefore, in order to interpret electrical resistivity data, it is important to understand the electrical properties of rocks and soils.

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The industrial boom in the United States during the 1950’s and 60’s brought with it a level of pollution never before seen in this country. Scenes of dying fish, burning rivers, and thick black smog engulfing major metropolitan areas were images and stories repeated regularly on the evening news. In December of 1970, President Richard Nixon created the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through an executive order in response to these critical environmental problems.

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The U.S. Clean Air Act was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on December 17, 1963. The act was meant to address air pollution nationally; this formidable task has required several significant amendments since its initial passage.

Air emissions originate from point sources such as large stationary fossil fuel power plants, smelters, industrial boilers, petroleum refineries, and manufacturing facilities and non-point sources such as on-road mobile, non-road mobile, and biogenic. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) oversees these types of emissions in Texas.

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Industrial Hygiene is a science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, prevention, and control of those environmental factors or stresses arising in or from the workplace which may cause sickness, impaired health and well-being, or significant discomfort among workers or among citizens of the community.

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Industrial Hygiene is a science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, prevention, and control of those environmental factors or stresses arising in or from the workplace which may cause sickness, impaired health and well-being, or significant discomfort among workers or among citizens of the community.

Air and Noise Monitoring are two biggest assessments conducted as a part of Industrial Hygiene Assessment.

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President Richard Nixon signed the Occupational Safety and Health Act into law on December 29, 1970. The act created the three agencies that administer it. They include the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. The act authorized the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to regulate private employers in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and territories. The Act establishing it includes a general duty clause (29 U.S.C. § 654, 5(a)) requiring an employer to comply with the Act and regulations derived from it, and to provide employees with “employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees.”

OSHA develops safety standards in the Code of Federal Regulation and enforces those safety standards through compliance inspections conducted by Compliance Officers; enforcement resources are focused on high-hazard industries. Worksites may apply to enter OSHA’s Voluntary Protection Program (VPP); a successful application leads to an on-site inspection; if this is passed the site gains VPP status and OSHA no longer inspects it annually nor (normally) visit it unless there is a fatal accident or an employee complaint until VPP revalidation (after 3–5 years)

The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), created under the same act, works closely with OSHA and provides the research behind many of OSHA’s regulations and standards.

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Project Objective:

Based on the available data collected during field visit, complete key components of Phase I Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) needs to be done by following instructions provided.

Prerequisite:

Module DD-10: Due Diligence Overview
Module DD-20: Phase I Environmental Site Assessment

Input Data:

Site Visit Data: Description, Use, Location, Interviews
Historical Information: Aerial Photographs, Topo maps
Regulatory Record Database
Appendix A: Photographs
Appendix B: Figures

Procedure:

Based on available information, complete the sections of Phase I ESA Report

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Project Objective:
Based on the available data collected during field visit, complete key components of Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) by following instructions provided.

Prerequisite:
Module EV-10: Environmental Compliance Summary (Introduction)
Module EV-30: Storm water

Input Data:
Site Visit Data: Site Inspection Notes
Template Instructions

Procedure:
Based on available information, complete the sections of SWPPP.

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Well tie is a necessary step in seismic interpretation. It is done to ground truth seismic data; to extract a wavelet for seismic inversion, synthetic modeling, or seismic calibration. Seismic amplitude calibration to true amplitude is required before any amplitude analysis and interpretation such as AVO.

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Surface seismic data is the most used data type in hydrocarbon exploration and development. Yet, it has some major shortcomings. These shortcomings stem from the requirement that during data acquisition, the sources and receivers are always positioned at or close to the surface. This requirement imposes major limitations on the acquired surface seismic data. The above limitations can be addressed by properly designed borehole seismic techniques. Before embarking on a borehole seismic survey campaign, the big question that is often asked is: what would be the added value from borehole seismic data to the exploration or development project?

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Module GA 101 concentrates on the tectonics and propagation of thrusts such as the Andean style & Himalayan style. Structural terms are set forth; describing the orientation of fold limbs, circular outcrop patterns typical for both domes and basins, and monoclines the result of movement along buried faults. The module covers the basic fault concepts, recognizing detachments, and complex geometries. The strike slip faults are discussed illustrating the very complex map view of fault patterns and fault terminations. Throughout the one hour video, surface and seismic examples are discussed. This module is for someone who has interest in a geologic review of terms and structural styles or for the individual seeking an understanding of the terminology.

Learning Objectives

After completing this module, participants will have obtained working knowledge on:

  • Compressional Tectonics – thrusts, faults and folds
  • Basic fault concepts are covered; for example,
    Anticlines,
    Synclines,
    Axial planes,
    Kink bands and folding
    Imbricated fan faults,
    Propagation folds,
    Lift-up folds,
    Ramp anticlines – anti-formal stack –
    Horse (duplexes)
    Strike slip faults
  • Recognizing detachments
  • Complex geometries; such as, Triangle zones
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Module GA 102 concentrates on the tectonics and propagation of contacts and unconformities.
Structural styles of the normal fault concept are covered. The conformable and intrusive contacts are described. Throughout the one hour video, surface and seismic examples are discussed. This module is for someone who has interest in a geologic review of terms and structural styles or for the individual seeking an understanding of the terminology.

Learning Objectives

After completing this module, participants will have obtained working knowledge on Extensional tectonics:

  • Normal fault concepts are covered; such as, grabens, half graben, listric faulting and slump features.
  • Conformable contacts; such as conformity, disconformity, angular unconformity and nonconformity
  • Intrusive contacts; such as volcanic and sedimentary
  • Extensional terrains; Rifts
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Module GA 103 concentrates on sequence stratigraphy models and interpretation. Unconformable relations in the sedimentary strata are critical for determining timing and events.
It is important in interpretation to recognize clastic facies seismic patterns. Various models as related to geologic and seismic patterns are discussed. The seismic interpretation technique is outlined with examples. This one hour video module is for someone who has interest in a geologic review of terms and the interpretation technique known as sequence stratigraphy.

Learning Objectives:

After completing this module, participants will have obtained working knowledge on:

  • Sequence stratigraphy models
  • Sequence stratigraphy Interpretation
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Full Tensor Gravity Gradiometry: An Overview

The use of Full Tensor Gravity Gradiometry, or FTG, is becoming increasingly common in the exploration industry. Before acquiring or utilising an FTG dataset it’s advantageous to understand what FTG is, what it is used for and how it is measured. This module covers an overview to these topics.

This module is separated into 3 parts:
Part 1: Looks at what gravity is and the difference between conventional gravity and gravity gradiometry, with an overview of tensors and vectors

Part 2: Considers the reasons for measuring FTG, including direct mapping and indirect mapping of targets, and regional mapping

Part 3: Looks at how we measure the gravity field, including ground gravity, conventional airborne gravity and gravity gradiometry

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This module consists of a series of three (3) Videos and a summary text (PDF). All three videos are covering the topic Understanding the Components of  Full Tensor Gravity Data.

Video 1 – Understanding the modeled response of a simple block.  We start with understanding the characteristics of the tensor’s signal responses utilizing the modeled responses of a simple block as an example.

– Video 2Relating the modeled responses to geological features or geometries. We continue by using the modeled responses of simple blocks to illustrate and discuss the signal changes due to target depth, density variations and volume.

Video 3A component by component analysis of two real data set examples. 1st example will be a salt dome with shallow signal due to high density variation distorting the signal of the deeper salt geometry. The 2nd example is a good example of variations due to near surface terrain.

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Introduction

Having a good appreciation of the concepts involved in planning an FTG Survey are beneficial in terms of deciding whether FTG is the most appropriate technique for a given exploration program. In addition, understanding the acquisition is important for reviewing the quality of the data when preparing and checking the quality control specification.

This module is separated into 3 parts:

Part 1: Considers the feasibility of FTG for targets, including considering noise and detectability

Part 2: Looks at planning an FTG survey, including considerations such as suitable bases for operations, weather, daylight, terrain and security.

Part 3: Looks at suitability of platforms for FTG surveys and creation of line and drape plans.

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The use of Full Tensor Gravity Gradiometry, or FTG, is becoming increasingly common in the exploration industry. This set of three modules and projects will allow you to become familiar with the dataset as it is used in oil, gas and mineral exploration, gain full background understanding of the components and how the data is acquired.

Here are the courses included:

GR-101 Full Tensor Gravity Gradiometry: An Overview
GR-102 Full Tensor Gravity Gradiometry: Understanding the Components
GR-103 Full Tensor Gravity Gradiometry: Planning and Acquiring Data

Here are the projects included:

Project GR-501 Full Tensor Gravity Gradiometry (FTG) Understanding the Components Modeled Geological Features
Project GR-502 Full Tensor Gravity Gradiometry (FTG) Understanding the Components Real Data
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The CO Series focus is on techniques required for successful completion of university undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory class. The main learning objective of the CO Series is for the student gain and understanding commonly used lab techniques through:
  • Acquiring background information,
  • Following demonstrations using appropriate equipment and glassware,
  • Determining common errors/problems and how to resolve them, and
  • Learning various calculations required to analysis data.

Learning Objectives

  • The module starts with discussing what is the melting point?
  • Information from the melting point
  • Effects on the melting point
  • Preparing melting point sample
  • Mixed melting points
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Learning Objectives

  • The module starts with discussing what is the recrystallization?
  • Best solvent
  • Performing recrystallization
  • Removing color impurities and
  • Percent (%) recovery
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Learning Objectives

  • The module starts with defining thin layer chromatography (TLC).
  • Discusses the TLC Parts; such as, stationary phase, plate backing, compound polarity & mobile phase.
  • Preparing, developing & visualizing TLC.
  • Retention factors
  • Common issues
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Learning Objectives

  • The module starts with discussing what is extraction?
  • Differences: Washing and Extraction
  • Solvents used
  • Glassware set-up
  • How to perform an extraction
  • How to separate mixtures based on pKa
  • Troubleshooting
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Learning Objectives

  • The module starts with discussing what is distillation?
  • Examine a homogenous binary mixture: Simple & Fractional
  • Glassware set-up and Running: Simple & Fractional
  • Graphing the Data
  • Troubleshooting
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Learning Objectives

  • The module starts with defining steam distillation?
  • Essential oils
  • Defining a Qualitative Test
  • Glassware set-up and Running
  • Performing Qualitative Test including TLC
  • Troubleshooting
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“Basement” is a term frequently used in geologic literature and in exploration or production reports to describe a surface or a drilling objective, but the term is generally not adequately defined by the author. The term may mean one thing to one person and something quite different to another. This module will discuss seven terms, Geologic, Economic, Acoustic, “Buffler”, Magnetic, Gravity, Refraction, that describe a “basement” surface and how they may or may not be related.

Learning objectives

After completing this module you will be able to:

  • Better understand the various meanings of the term “basement”
  • Better understand which type of “basement” is most important for your business objective.
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Basement structure and basement structural history are two key parameters in any basin evaluation or regional geological analysis. A basement structure map provides a unique tool for interpretation of regional structural style and for correlation between basement structure and structure or stratigraphy in overlying sediments. It can also be used to explain relationships between basement structure and oil/gas distribution in the region. However, in many world-wide onshore/offshore regions, especially in areas where basement is believed to be deep, its configuration and actual depth can be very speculative. In those areas, there is usually a scarcity of basement-related hard data such as well penetrations or seismic data tied to well-controlled basement penetrations. As a result, attempts are often made to bridge this knowledge gap with generalizations or with unconstrained seismic interpretations. Unconstrained seismic can be a pitfall since “yesterday’s” interpretation of a “basement” reflector may be later shown, on the basis of newer and better acquisition or processing, to have been based on an intrasedimentary event (see Module #23-Basement Types for various definitions of “basement”). One way to avoid this problem is to incorporate or integrate quantitative magnetic depth estimates into an interpretation which should then be properly described as a magnetic basement interpretation.

Age, lithology, and stratigraphic position of rocks forming the basement are seldom well-known in the region studied. However, regional geologic comparative analysis can provide some useful interpretations. A basement structural interpretation should, if at all possible, be made by integration of magnetic, gravity, seismic, geology and other geophysical data to develop a series of model-tested regional maps. Some examples would be pre-Jurassic sediment isopachs, a basement isopach, or a lower crust isopach (thickness of oceanic/lower crust). The basement structure can also be integrated with gravity and seismic refraction data to help categorize crustal regimes: e.g., shield, platform, oceanic, etc.

Learning Objectives

Before beginning this module, you should have a firm concept of:

  • How basement may be described or defined (Module #23)
  • Anomaly patterns related to basement lithology and structure (Module #12)
  • Regional structural framework interpretations based on qualitative gravity/magnetic interpretation (Module #32)
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A qualitative interpretation of magnetic data can be a very fast and useful approach to making a general evaluation of regional geologic structure, but it does not provide adequate information about the depth of key components of the structural features. In fact, the qualitative approach can lead to a somewhat subconscious, but erroneous, concept that anomaly amplitude rather than anomaly wavelength is a reflection of the magnetic body’s depth. On the other hand, a quantitative magnetic interpretation, especially if integrated with other data (well data, surface and subsurface geology, seismic), can provide significantly more useful information about basement depth and configuration as well as depth and location of intrasedimentary igneous material (dikes, flows, plugs).

The amount of detail, time, and cost of a quantitative magnetic interpretation can vary widely depending on the geologic problem to resolve and the time/cost budget available for the project. Sometimes when there is a large dataset to be interpreted, automated methods of depth estimation and contouring are used by some firms to reduce manpower needs and to increase output. However, automation cannot yet fully substitute for a human’s experience and judgment in evaluating depth estimates and interpreting them in the form of a geologically reasonable contour map.

The primary purpose of this module is to discuss 2D interpretation along magnetic profiles since that is where there the bulk of industry effort is concentrated. However, this module will also touch on some special applications of 3D magnetic interpretation.

Learning Objectives

After completing this module, you will:

  • Understand the benefits of making a quantitative magnetic interpretation
  • Understand the data required and how to select optimal profiles to analyze
  • Understand the fundamentals of different techniques for depth estimation
  • Understand how to evaluate depth solutions
  • Understand the benefits vs. pitfalls of automated depth solutions
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A key to determining an individual prospect’s potential is the delineation of its drainage area based on its position relative to the surrounding structural based migration pathways.

Learning Objectives

After completing this unit, you’ll be able to:

  • Understand and describe the Migration Pathway or “Initial Plumbing”
  • Use the Magnetic Basement Structure to delineate and group migration pathways.
  • Explain the association of the Migration Pathways and announced oil & gas discoveries and how reduced exploration risk can benefit your business.
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There may be times when a G&G interpreter, somewhat unfamiliar with gravity or magnetic interpretation, will look at a gravity or magnetic contour map of a frontier area and wonder whether the anomalies represent shallow or deep source bodies. The interpreter understands that anomaly amplitudes are related to source body density or magnetization, not depth, and that short-wavelength anomalies have shallower sources than long-wavelength anomalies with deep sources. But how shallow is shallow, and how deep is deep? The answers may reveal whether the contour map represents a prospective area and whether the map provides some insight into the area’s geology. Before deciding on whether to spend the money for a detailed quantitative gravity or magnetic interpretation, the interpreter can quickly make his/her own rough “rule-of-thumb” depth estimates from time-honored techniques. Then, if the preliminary estimates were favorable, a more sophisticated interpretation would be well-justified.

Learning Objectives

After completing this module, you will know how to:

  • Select key anomalies from a gravity or magnetic contour map
  • Determine the characteristic anomaly signature of 9 types of geologic bodies or structures
  • How to extract appropriate profiles across those mapped anomalies
  • Determine diagnostic points along the profiles
  • Apply appropriate formulae to obtain “rule-of-thumb” depth estimates to the source body. Most of the formulae used below are appropriate for gravity interpretation where the initial estimate is to the center of mass of the source body. Magnetic depth estimates are normally estimates to the depth of a magnetized surface, which is usually equivalent to depth to the top of the source body. Some basic techniques for magnetic depth estimation can be found in Mod#26 Depth Estimation Techniques.
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A qualitative geologic interpretation of the regional structural framework for a lightly-explored area can be developed very economically through use of public domain data. This concept is especially valid for any offshore area because they are all covered by readily available world-wide satellite-derived gravity data bases. By comparing and integrating satellite-derived gravity with other public source or published geology or geophysics, it is possible to detect regional structural patterns and to extend or extrapolate them into adjacent areas. Examples of useful public data include published bathymetry, refraction seismic, marine- or airborne magnetic data, DEM (digital elevation) data, surface geology maps and published geologic cross sections. A regional study of Gabon using these concepts provides an example of what can be accomplished.

Learning Objectives

After completing this unit, you will:

  • Understand the inherent benefits gained by integrating various types of geophysical and geological data.
  • Know the types of public-source or commercial data are available and where to find them.
  • Coverage and quality limitations of public-source data.
  • Suitable gridding, enhancement, and interpretation techniques based on data quality.
  • Be able to better relate this subject with Modules: #4 (Gravity, Magnetics, and Gradiometer Survey Overview) ,# 9-13 (Signatures), #18 (Data Enhancement Techniques), #31 (Gravity Depth Estimates) and #36 (Moho)
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What is an optimal profile and how should an interpreter select one? Selecting the optimal profile is one of the most important initial steps in 2D modelling and depth estimation. By making a proper selection you can make sure the parameters resulting from your calculations have not been distorted. In most cases the optimal profile to analyze is normal to the strike of an anomaly or structure. That profile will give the best results when calculating gravity or magnetic depth estimates needed for quantitative interpretation of anomaly source bodies and will provide more accurate and geologically meaningful 2D structural models.

Learning Objectives
After completing this module you’ll be able to:

  • Decide on an initial step involved with structural modelling; specifically, the selection of the optimal line position along which to model.
  • Understand why selecting the correct profile is vital in magnetic depth estimation
  • Understand how analysis of the optimal profile impacts an interpretation
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The shape of a magnetic anomaly depends on a number of factors:

  1. Geologic structure (faults, anticlines, synclines, etc.)
  2. Magnetic Lithology (magnetite content, presence of remnant magnetization)
  3. The earth’s ambient magnetic field (Inclination, Declination & Magnitude)

The earth’s ambient or reference magnetic field varies continuously. Short term (minutes to days) variations are accounted for and removed during acquisition and processing of magnetic surveys. Across the surface of the earth, the magnetic survey for G&G operations is measuring the distortion of the magnetic field caused by the geologic structure and lithology. Module #28-Magnetic Anomaly vs. Magnetic Inclination illustrated how changes in inclination of the ambient field will induce a shape in the magnetic anomaly laterally offset from the causative geologic feature. Centering magnetic anomalies directly over the geology is critical to the interpretation process. The Reduction-to-Pole (RTP) is a mathematical transformation (Baranov, 1957;Arkani-Hamed, 2007) of the total magnetic intensity (TMI) field at its observed Inclination (I) and Declination (D) on the earth’s surface to that of I = +90°or -90° and D=0°, i.e., the nearest magnetic pole. However, several cautions must be noted during the procedure. RTP results suffer at lower inclinations, say +30°to -30°; some algorithms and methods do better than others. RTP transforms only the induced magnetic anomaly; i.e., the TMI vector is parallel to the earth’s ambient field at that location. Therefore, if the causative geology contains a large component of remnant magnetization, the anomaly will have additional skewing beyond the induced anomaly.

Learning Objectives

After completing this unit, you’ll be able to:

Describe what parameters are used to define the earth’s magnetic field and their general variation over the earth’s surface.

Explain how an understanding of how magnetic anomaly shape varies with changing magnetic inclination and declination of the earth’s field and the removal of that effect using the magnetic Reduction to Pole method can benefit your exploration objective through improved delineation of geologic structure and lithology.

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Broad-spectrum of complex information is prevalent in all geophysical datasets. The information reflects the physical effects of all cultural and geological sources. Geophysical interpreters have been utilizing data enhancement techniques to: a) effectively remove unwanted cultural components from the data, and b) efficiently preserve the valuable information pertaining to shallow and buried geological features.

Learning Objectives
After completing this Module, you will be able to:

  • Describe what commonly utilized data enhancement techniques (or filters) are.
  • Explain how data enhancement techniques can benefit your business (interpreters) to:
    • Remove perturbing cultural noises and extract the maximum from your data.
    • Isolate anomaly zone of interest: from earth surface to basement or base of crust.
    • Delineate shallow and surface geological features.
    • Emphasize anomaly gradient zones.
    • Identify regional structural trends and major tectonics
    • Isolate geological targets and anomalies of interest.
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In general, the term “residual” refers to a quantity left over at the end of a process or in scientific terms the difference between an observed field and a calculated field. To geologists and geophysicists “residualization” known as “Regional-Residual Separation” is the process of generating a residual anomaly field from an observed field by removing a regional field. This residual map usually reveals previously hidden subtle features in the data. The map is considered to be a key element for an interpreter whose endeavor is to find and decipher local features which could be anomalies of exploration significance.

Learning Objectives
After completing this Module, you will be able to:

  • Describe what residual maps are.
  • Learn how to generate a residual map.
  • Explain how residual maps are used
  • Isolate anomaly zones of interest
  • Delineate shallow geological features.
  • Isolate geological targets and anomalies of interest.
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High-amplitude, short-wavelength culture-related magnetic anomalies can adversely impact the processing and interpretation of aeromagnetic surveys. Since cultural features (man-made objects) are surface or near-surface, the problem is especially acute for modern HRAM (high resolution) surveys flown with low terrain clearance and close line spacing. Because of the low terrain clearance, the sensor- source separation is relatively short and the signal fall-off (inverse square or inverse cube) from a monopole/dipole-type culture source is unfavorably low. That means undesirable anomalies (magnetic noise) remain strong.

Learning Objectives
After completing this unit, you will:

  • Understand the meaning of culture-generated anomalies and “culture-editing” (or “de-culturing”).
  • Know when and why to do culture-editing of aeromagnetic data.
  • Understand some of the pitfalls of the culture-editing process.
  • Understand how culture-editing will improve the quality of your magnetic data base and lead to more accurate interpretations.
  • Be able to better relate this subject with Modules 15, 18, 19 and 26.
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The detection of the gravity anomaly signatures correlating to the mineral’s density expression introduces a wealth of new data and of new ideas regarding “Prospect” concepts and how they can be developed.

Learning objectives

After completing this module, you’ll have:

  • Learn a cost saving strategy to apply to mineral exploration,
  • An understanding rock density contrasts that generate a gravity anomaly identifying the ore potential at a specific location,
  • A method to distinguish varying grades of ore quality via structural modeling technique.
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Each geologic province may have unique geological or geophysical parameters. Therefore the prospective anomaly signature associated with each individual province will vary accordingly. Pattern recognition of anomaly signature is of vital importance to all interpretation sciences. The following discussion is one of a series of six on the importance of pattern recognition for geophysicists and geologists interested in obtaining a working knowledge of what type of signal patterns are valuable for the purpose of integrating gravity and magnetic data with seismic and geological data to develop exploration targets. The incorporation of the integration process in exploration is known to reduce risk and therefore reduce the total cost of exploration.

Learning objectives
After completing this module you’ll be able to:

  • Identify anomaly signature of faulted structures in profile and map view
  • Correctly place faults on gravity and magnetic maps
Purchase Course

Each geologic province may have unique geological or geophysical parameters. Therefore prospective anomaly signature associated with each individual province will vary accordingly. Pattern recognition of anomaly signature is of vital importance to all interpretation sciences. The following discussion is for geophysicists and geologists interested in obtaining a working knowledge of what type of signal patterns are associated with potential fields data. The incorporation of the integration process in exploration is known to reduce risk and therefore reduce the total cost of exploration.

Learning objectives
After completing this module you’ll be able to:

  • Identify gravity and magnetic signature patterns due to various syncline and anticline structures.
Purchase Course

Each geologic province may have unique geological or geophysical parameters. Therefore prospective anomaly signature associated with each individual province will vary accordingly. Pattern recognition of anomaly signature is of vital importance to all interpretation sciences. The following discussion is one of a series of six on the importance of pattern recognition for geoscientist interested in obtaining a working knowledge of what type of signal patterns are valuable for the purpose of integrating gravity and magnetic data with seismic and geological data to develop exploration targets. The incorporation of the integration process in exploration is known to reduce risk & evaluation time and therefore reduce the total cost of exploration.

Learning objectives
After completing this module you will be able to:

  • Identify the signature pattern of various types of intrusion
  • Understand why pattern recognition is the basis of effective interpretation
Purchase Course

Each geologic province has unique geological or geophysical parameters. Prospective anomaly signatures associated with each individual province will vary accordingly. Pattern recognition of anomaly signatures is of vital importance to all interpretation sciences. The following discussion is one of a series of six on the importance of pattern recognition. Geoscientists need to have a working knowledge of what type of signal patterns are valuable for better integration of gravity and magnetic data with seismic and geological data to develop exploration targets. Using the integration process in exploration is known to reduce risk, evaluation time and therefore reduce the total cost of exploration.

Learning objectives

After completing this module you’ll be able to:

  • Understand principle anomaly patterns related to lithological and structural variations in basement structures
  • Purchase Course

    Each geologic province may have unique geological or geophysical parameters. Therefore prospective anomaly signature associated with each individual province will vary accordingly. Pattern recognition of anomaly signature is of vital importance to all interpretation sciences. The following discussion is one of a series of six on the importance of pattern recognition for geophysicists and geologists interested in obtaining a working knowledge of what type of signal patterns are valuable for the purpose of integrating gravity and magnetic data with seismic and geological data to develop exploration targets. The incorporation of the integration process in exploration is known to reduce risk and therefore reduce the total cost of exploration.

    Learning objectives
    After completing this module you’ll be able to:

    • Identify signature patterns associated to dipping beds anomalies
    • Have a understanding why a pattern is created by dipping beds
    Purchase Course

    The earth’s ambient or reference magnetic field varies continuously. Short term (minutes to days) variations are accounted for and removed during acquisition and processing of magnetic surveys. Across the surface of the earth, the magnetic survey for G&G operations is measuring the distortion of the magnetic field caused by the geologic structure and lithology. This module will illustrate the changes the inclination of the ambient field will induce in the shape of a magnetic anomaly caused by a geologic feature such as an igneous intrusive.

    Learning Objectives
    After completing this unit, you’ll be able to:

    • Describe what parameters are used to define the earth’s magnetic field and their general variation over the earth’s surface.
    • Explain how an understanding of how magnetic anomaly shape varies with changing magnetic inclination of the earth’s field can benefit your exploration objective through improved delineation of geologic structure and lithology.

     

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    Gravity exploration must account for the horizontal and vertical differences in density which occur in subsurface geologic features. Gravity anomalies require lateral density discontinuities such as stratigraphic or structural changes in the subsurface. Vertical density differences in the subsurface will change the bias or overall amplitude level of a gravity map or profile but will not produce gravity anomalies.

    Learning Objectives

    After completing this module, you will have an understanding of:

    • gravitational attraction.
    • rock density.
    • different types of density sources.
    • density contrast.
    • the importance of density contrasts to interpretation.
    • why a layer-cake geologic section without local structure or stratigraphic changes will not produce local gravity anomalies.
    • the reference Tables of Typical Density Values
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    Magnetic susceptibility is known as the ratio of the magnetization of a material to the magnetic field strength; it is a tensor when these two quantities are not parallel, otherwise it is a number. The magnetic susceptibility of a rock is proportional to the volume percent of magnetic minerals. Magnetic susceptibility (k) is a trace property of the rocks because the percentage of the magnetic minerals even in basic igneous rocks is usually one percent or less. Yet minimal variations in magnetic content can cause large changes in susceptibility.

    Learning Objectives

    After completing this module, you will have:

    • An understanding of a rock’s various types of magnetism
    • An understanding of what is magnetic susceptibility
    • A set of reference Tables of Magnetic Susceptibility Values
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    Velocity, in this context, is the speed (distance / time) of sound (a compression wave) through rock (which may contain fluid and gas). Velocity may be used to determine rock densities and convert seismic information from time to depth. The rock velocity which correlates to its density is measured as interval velocity. That is the velocity between two depths; i.e., a thickness interval. It is implicit that the density of interest lies between these two depths. Velocity data sources from G&G operations include wellbore surveys such as sonic logs, checkshots, and seismic profiles and various 2D and 3D seismic data analysis methods. Data types will be discussed first then conversion of velocity to density methods and typical value reference tables and then conversion from time to depth methods.

    Learning Objectives
    After completing this unit, you’ll be able to:

    • Describe what data and methods will best convert velocity to density and time to depth.
    • Explain how an understanding of velocity methods will benefit your exploration
      objective through improved delineation of geologic structure and lithology.
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    Airborne magnetic surveying for petroleum exploration continues to routinely and indisputably reveal interesting and measurable magnetic anomalies (as small as 0.1 nT under the best survey conditions) which arise from geological variations within the sedimentary section. These so- called intra-sedimentary magnetic anomalies are detectable from aeromagnetic data acquired with stringent aeromagnetic survey design and acquisition specifications/techniques. Thus, often only new or recent vintage data (typically less than fifteen or so years old) is suitable for reliably mapping sedimentary magnetic effects.

    While there is no doubt as to the existence of sedimentary magnetic anomalies, there is considerable lack of knowledge and experience as to the correct interpretation of such anomalies. The lack of interpretational expertise is apparently directly related to both the lack of sufficient “ground truthing” of the observed anomalies, and the lack of shared knowledge and “best practices” among magnetic interpreters regarding these anomalies. Thus most interpretation has tended to be fairly empirical, consisting in most instances of postulated correlations between mapped magnetic anomalies and suspected geologic features.

    Learning objectives:

    • To demonstrate, through modeling, diapiric and detached salt features which can be
      expected to generate sedimentary magnetic anomalies.
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    A Two-Dimensional (2D) EarthModel, a geophysical and geological based cross-sectional model of the earth, is best described in terms of its exploration objective. This means that when a geologic target is chosen, the structural model is designed to represent the geologic environment surrounding the prospective zone.

    Learning Objectives

    After completing this module, you’ll be able to:

    • Describe what a 2D Structural Model is, how extensive it should be, what type of data and constraints are required for the model, and on which datum to compute the model effect.
    • Explain how a 2D Structural Model can benefit your exploration objective through improved delineation of geologic structure and lithology.
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    A Three-Dimensional (3D) EarthModel, a geophysics- and geology-based three-dimensional model of the earth, is best described in terms of its exploration objective. Once a geologic target is chosen, the model can be designed to represent the geologic environment surrounding the prospective zone.

    Learning Objectives

    After completing this module, you’ll be able to:

    • Describe what a 3D EarthModel is.
    • Describe how extensive should the model be.
    • Determine what type of data and constraints are required for the model, and on which datum to compute the model effect.
    • Explain how a 3D EarthModel can benefit your exploration objective through improved delineation of geologic structure and lithology.

    A 3D EarthModel is a 3-Dimensional matrix of density or susceptibility based on geologic structure that can describe formation sequences, faults and intrusions. This combined geophysical and geological three-dimensional model of the earth, is best described in terms of its exploration objective. This means that once a geologic target is chosen, the model can be designed to represent the geologic environment surrounding the prospective zone.

    Calculation of the gravity or magnetic effects requires the 3D EarthModel be defined in the space domain. Therefore, integration of time domain seismic data will require its conversion to the space domain. Each node value of density or susceptibility within the volume matrix is located with x,y,z (easting, northing, depth) coordinates. The geologic structure nodes within this volume will be defined by importing depth grids of geologic surfaces. Then the surfaces are assigned density or susceptibility as either constant values or laterally varying values defined by grids. In addition to grids, the structural matrix of density or susceptibility may be modified by including arbitrary 3D shapes defined either internally or imported.

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    The simplest type of Bouguer correction to gravity data is the slab correction which removes the gravitational effect of an infinite horizontal mass between the station elevation and an assumed datum. In many areas, that underlying mass is not a horizontal slab but has an undulating upper surface, or topography. For land or sea bottom surveys, the result is that the part of the mass above the meter elevation exerts an upward pull on the gravity meter and the part lower than the meter is over-corrected by the slab-type correction. That distorts the desired gravity generated by a deeper geologic source body. For shipborne marine gravity surveys, the thickness of the water layer can be quite variable and its effect cannot be corrected with a simple slab correction. Sometimes the undulations are severe and the simple Bouguer-corrected gravity is grossly inaccurate. That part of the problem can be mollified by computing and applying a 2D terrain correction to the Bouguer value along a profile.

    However, in the real world, terrain/topographic undulations occur in three dimensions, so the mass variations from off-line topography still affect gravity values. The solution is to apply a Three-Dimensional (3D) Bouguer correction. A modern 3D Bouguer Correction combines the simple Bouguer slab correction with a terrain correction computed directly from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) rather than from ring zone (Hammer, 1939) estimates made during field acquisition or later in processing. The DEM process provides an efficient automated approach to making 3D Bouguer corrections, but does have a weakness unless the gravity stations are properly located. That weakness can come from the grid spacing of the DEM: if the topography variations have a shorter wavelength than the DEM grid, the terrain corrections may be inadequate. If gravity stations cannot be placed adequately far from sharp topographic features such as cliffs or gullies, the meter operator must estimate topography variations between the station location and closest DEM value. The 3D Bouguer correction is applicable for gravity surveys both onshore and offshore. The main consideration will be selection of the density to use for calculating the correction, and that selection will be guided by local geology and the exploration objective.

    Learning Objectives

    After completing this module, you’ll be able to:

    • Describe a 3D Bouguer Correction.
    • Determine when a 3D Bouguer Correction should be applied.
    • Determine how extensive it should be.
    • Determine what type of data and constraints are required.
    • Explain how a 3D Bouguer Correction can benefit your exploration objective through improved delineation of geologic structure and lithology.
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    The boundary between the Earth’s crust and the mantle has been defined as the Mohorovicic discontinuity or known for short as the Moho. This boundary interface involves a large change in both velocity measured directly using refraction data and density contrast measured using gravity data. Due to this contrast, undulations in the Moho surface generate anomalies of regional scale producing gravity gradients that can conceal and hide geological features of interest. Therefore, gravity anomalies sourced within the sedimentary section must be enhanced by: 1) removing the gravity effect of the Moho surface, and 2) attenuating the gravity effect of shallow topographic features; and what remains is a crustal model that reflects gravity anomalies of exploration significance from the Earth’s surface to the base of the crust.

    The surface which separates the Earth’s crust from the mantle can be configured by seismic or gravimetric methods. The seismic method is expensive and suffers the scarcity of available seismic data. On the other hand, the gravity method is less costly and regional gravity public domain data sets are easily accessible. The interpretation of the surface using gravity is carried out in three steps: a) compute an estimated depth-to-Moho surface using Airy-Heiskanen model, b) incorporate the surface as a layer in a regional 3D gravity EarthModel, then invert on the Bouguer gravity field, and c) calibrate and adjust the inverted depth surface to available refraction or reflection data sets.

    Learning Objectives:

    After completing this Module, you will be able to:
    • Describe the isostasy principal.
    • Describe the gravity crustal model.
    • Describe a Depth-to-Moho surface
    • Describe a calibrated and adjusted Depth-to-Moho Surface.
    • How to generate an isostatic residual map.
    • Identify the anomaly zone of interest: from earth surface to the base of crust.
    • Example area is used to illustrate the procedure.

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    The formation-to-age correlations are not straight-forward as formation names for a given geologic age do change from locale to locale, even within the same state. Over 4,000,000 wells have been scrutinized to develop the US Continental well database which has been datum-corrected to subsea (bsl) depths and transcribe to Latitude & Longitude positions. All formations with corresponding depths were preserved. A colleague can access the database to query and retrieve over 1,000,000 tied well tops. Additional subsets of geological mapped surfaces and corresponding isopachs are available.

    Contact us at info@vidlnetwork.com for purchase information.

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    US East Coast Magnetic Basement Structure Maps
    Any 2D or 3D structural model project should if possible include the basement framework. As a colleague you will have the option to retrieve any subset area along the US East Coast for use in a project. The area available encompasses the offshore shelf from the states of Maine to Florida.

    Contact us at info@vidlnetwork.com for purchase information.

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    Any 2D or 3D structural model project should if possible include the basement framework. As a colleague you will the option to retrieve any subset area along the US Gulf Coast States for use in a project. The area available encompasses the Gulf Coast areas for the states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida.

    Contact us at info@vidlnetwork.com for purchase information.

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    A Project may entail modeling the salt configuration for a specific area on the Louisiana State shelf margin. The Salt Tectonics database is a regional 3D model of the salt configuration. As a colleague you will be able to retrieve a subset area of the regional salt tectonics model results and refine the salt/sediment interface with your additional proprietary data via a 3D structural model project.

    Contact us at info@vidlnetwork.com for purchase information.

    Purchase Course

    This project is to familiarize someone new to structural models or a review for those getting reacquainted. There is a prerequisite to this project; that Project 101 – Potential Fields Essentials. The objective is to describe the elements required for 2D structural models.

    There are two course modules included:
    Mod#20 2D Structural Model
    Mod#16 Correct Profile

    There is one prerequisite:
    Project 101 – Potential Fields Essentials

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    In this project, you will use 2D gravity modeling software in an offshore setting to calculate the 2D gravity effect of the bathymetry. This gravity effect (2D or Simple Bouguer correction) will then be applied using profile processing software to the Free-Air gravity thus producing Bouguer gravity. Most of the signal in Free-Air gravity processed to sea level is from the large density contrast at the water-sediment interface. This same type of large density contrast but at the air-topography interface is what necessitates the Bouguer correction for onshore gravity data. Without the correction, the gravity data profile is largely a reflection of the bathymetry.

    Prerequisite Project: 500 plus Module #7

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    In this project, you will use 2D gravity modeling software in an offshore setting to calculate the 2D gravity effect of the bathymetry and several relatively shallow sedimentary layers.
    In Project 501, the 2D or Simple Bouguer correction was calculated and applied producing Bouguer gravity which is the first step for a qualitative interpretation.
    With this project, we now proceed to a quantitative interpretation of all the geology which produces the observed gravity field.
    Density and depth control will be introduced from sources such as surface geology, wells and refraction data to build a Geologic Cross-Section to be used as initial model input.
    The model’s geologic interfaces will be manipulated within the constraints of the control data; modeling success may be judged based on the match between the calculated and observed fields.
    Prerequisite Project: 500 plus Module #7

    Purchase Course

    In this project, you will use 2D gravity modeling software in an onshore setting to calculate the 2D gravity effect of the topography.
    This effect, the 2D or Simple Bouguer correction will then be applied using profile processing software to the Free-Air gravity thus producing Bouguer gravity.
    Most of the signal in onshore Free-Air gravity is from the large density contrast at the air-topography interface.
    This same type of large density contrast but at the water-sediment interface is what necessitates the Bouguer correction for offshore gravity data.
    Without the correction, mapped gravity data is largely a reflection of the topography.
    Prerequisite Project: 500 plus Module #7

    Purchase Course

    In this project, you will use 2D gravity modeling software in an onshore setting to calculate the 2D gravity effect of the topography and several relatively shallow sedimentary layers.
    In Project 511, the 2D or Simple Bouguer correction was calculated and applied producing Bouguer gravity which is the first step for a qualitative interpretation.
    With this project, we now proceed to a quantitative interpretation of all the geology which produces the observed gravity field.
    Density and depth control will be introduced from sources such as surface geology, wells and refraction data to build a Geologic Cross-Section to be used as initial model input.
    The model’s geologic interfaces will be manipulated within the constraints of the control data; modeling success may be judged based on the match between the calculated and observed fields.
    Prerequisite Project: 500 plus Module #7

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    In this project, you will use 2D magnetic modeling software in an onshore setting to calculate the 2D magnetic effect of the magnetic basement hence focusing on the longer wavelength anomalies.
    We’ll begin with an RTP magnetic profile and a previously determined top of magnetic basement structure. This basement is made up of faulted blocks of varying susceptibilities.
    The basement faulting and susceptibility will be manipulated within the constraints of the control data then modeling success may be judged based on the match between the calculated and observed fields.
    Prerequisite Project: 500

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    In this project, you will use 2D magnetic modeling software in an onshore setting to calculate the 2D magnetic effect of relatively shallow intrusives hence focusing on the shorter wavelength anomalies.
    We’ll begin with an RTP magnetic profile and a depth range for the intrusives from known geology.
    The structure and susceptibility of the intrusions will be manipulated within the constraints of the control data then modeling success may be judged based on the match between the calculated and observed fields.
    Prerequisite Project: 500

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    In this project, you will use 2D magnetic modeling software in an onshore setting to calculate the 2D magnetic effect of the magnetic basement and relatively shallow volcanic flows.
    We’ll begin with an RTP magnetic profile, a previously determined top of magnetic basement structure, and a depth range of volcanics from known geology.
    The structure and susceptibility of all the magnetic strata will be manipulated within the constraints of the control data then modeling success may be judged based on the match between the calculated and observed fields.
    Prerequisite Project: 500, 521 & 522

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    In this project, you will use 2D gravity & magnetic modeling software in an onshore setting to calculate the 2D gravity & magnetic effects of the geologic units above the lower crust.
    We’ll begin with Free-Air gravity and RTP magnetic profiles, and a previously determined top of magnetic basement structure.
    Density, susceptibility and depth control will be introduced from sources such as surface geology, wells and refraction data to build a Geologic Cross-Section to be used as initial model input.
    The structure, density and susceptibility of all the strata will be manipulated within the constraints of the control data then modeling success may be judged based on the match between the calculated and observed fields.
    Prerequisite Project: 500, 502 or 512, & 523

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    This project is to familiarize someone new to structural models or a review for those getting reacquainted. The objective is to describe the elements required for 3D structural models.

    Mod#5 Density of Rocks
    Mod#6 Magnetic Susceptibility of Rocks
    Mod#7 Velocity
    Mod#21 3D EarthModel
    Mod#28 Magnetic Inclination vs. Geographical Location
    Mod#22 3D Bouguer Correction

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    In this project, you will use 3D gravity modeling software in an offshore setting to calculate the 3D gravity effect of the bathymetry.
    This effect, the 3D Bouguer correction, will then be applied using grid processing software to the Free-Air gravity thus producing Bouguer gravity.
    Most of the signal in Free-Air gravity processed to sea level is from the large density contrast at the water-sediment interface.
    This same type of large density contrast but at the air-sediment interface is what necessitates the Bouguer correction for onshore gravity data.
    Without the correction, mapped gravity data is largely a reflection of the bathymetry.
    You will also come to understand why a 3D or side-looking calculation is better than a simple vertical offset Bouguer correction.
    This project will also allow you to experiment with various control parameters within the modeling software to understand their effect on the computation.
    Prerequisite Project: 600

    Purchase Course

    In this project, you will use 3D gravity modeling software in an offshore setting to calculate the 3D gravity effect of the bathymetry and several relatively shallow sedimentary layers.
    In Project 601, the 3D Bouguer correction was calculated and applied producing Bouguer gravity which is the first step for a qualitative interpretation.
    With this project, we now proceed to a quantitative interpretation of all the geology which produces the observed gravity field.
    Density and depth control will be introduced from sources such as wells and refraction data.
    The model’s geologic interfaces will be manipulated within the constraints of the control data; modeling success may be judged based on the match between the calculated and observed fields.
    Prerequisite Projects: 600

    Purchase Course

    In this project, you will use 3D gravity modeling software in an offshore setting to calculate the 3D gravity effect of the bathymetry, several crustal layers and the crust-mantle interface, the Moho.
    Building on Project 601 in which the 3D Bouguer correction was calculated, crustal layers will be added based on density and depth control from sources such as wells and refraction data.
    An initial Base of Crust (Moho) will be derived using an Airy-Heiskanen formula and tied to deep refraction data.
    Gravity inversions of the Moho and shallower crustal layers will be run making adjustments between iterations to honor available depth control.
    Modeling success may be judged based on the match between the calculated and observed fields and fit of the geologic interfaces with the constraints of the data control.
    Prerequisite Projects: 600 & Module #36

    Purchase Course

    In this project, you will use 3D gravity modeling software in an onshore setting to calculate the 3D gravity effect of the topography.
    This effect, the 3D Bouguer correction, will then be applied using grid processing software to the Free-Air gravity thus producing Bouguer gravity.
    Most of the signal in onshore Free-Air gravity is from the large density contrast at the air-topography interface.
    This same type of large density contrast but at the water-sediment interface is what necessitates the Bouguer correction for offshore gravity data.
    Without the correction, mapped gravity data is largely a reflection of the topography.
    You will also come to understand why a 3D or side-looking calculation is better than a simple vertical offset Bouguer correction.
    This project will also allow you to experiment with various control parameters within the modeling software to understand their effect on the computation.
    Prerequisite Project: 600

    Purchase Course

    In this project, you will use 3D gravity modeling software in an onshore setting to calculate the 3D gravity effect of the topography.
    In Project 611, the 3D Bouguer correction was calculated and applied producing Bouguer gravity which is the first step for a qualitative interpretation.
    With this project, we now proceed to a quantitative interpretation of all the geology which produces the observed gravity field.
    Density and depth control will be introduced from sources such as wells and surface geology.
    The model’s geologic interfaces will be manipulated within the constraints of the control data; modeling success may be judged based on the match between the calculated and observed fields.
    Prerequisite Projects: 600

    Purchase Course

    In this project, you will use 3D gravity modeling software in an onshore setting to calculate the 3D gravity effect of the topography, several crustal layers and the crust-mantle interface, the Moho.
    Building on Project 611 in which the 3D Bouguer correction was calculated, crustal layers will be added based on density and depth control from sources such as wells and refraction data.
    An initial Base of Crust (Moho) will be derived using an Airy-Heiskanen formula and tied to deep refraction data.
    Gravity inversions of the Moho and shallower crustal layers will be run making adjustments between iterations to honor available depth control.
    Modeling success may be judged based on the match between the calculated and observed fields and fit of the geologic interfaces with the constraints of the data control.
    Prerequisite Projects: 600 & Module #36

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    This project collects all the Modules you’ll need to have the necessary background knowledge to apply various gridding parameters and grid filter operator to isolate geologic features.
    In this project, you will use gridding and grid filtering software to aid in a geologic interpretation.
    Prerequisite Project: 101 plus Modules #15 & #18

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    This project collects all the Modules you’ll need to have the necessary background knowledge to apply various gridding parameters and grid filter operator to isolate geologic features.
    In this project, you will use gridding and grid filtering software to isolate anomalies for a geologic interpretation.
    Prerequisite Project: 101 plus Modules #15, #18 & #19

    Purchase Course

    This project is a bundle of ten essential course modules for someone new potential fields or a review for those getting reacquainted.
    The objective is to introduce you to the essential elements of that create a gravity or magnetic anomaly signature. Also covered is a pattern recognition series that instructs what the signatures relate to geologically.

    Mod#5 Density of Rocks
    Mod#6 Magnetic Susceptibility of Rocks
    Mod#28 Magnetic Inclination vs. Geographical Location
    Mod#17 Reduction-to-Magnetic Pole
    Mods#8 thru 13 Pattern Recognition Series

    Purchase Course

    This project is a bundle of course modules for someone new potential fields or a review for those getting reacquainted. The objective is to introduce you to the anomaly signature patterns relate to geologic features.

    Mod#8 Salt Magnetic Susceptibility
    Mod#9 Normal Faults
    Mod#10 Anticlines/Synclines
    Mod#11 Intrusives
    Mod#12 Structure vs. Lithology
    Mod#13 Dipping Beds
    Mod#28 Magnetic Anomaly vs. Magnetic Inclination

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    In this project, you will use 2D gravity modeling software in an onshore setting to calculate the 2D gravity effect of mineralized geologic strata in the near surface.
    Density and depth control from sources such as surface geology and wells will be used to build a Geologic Cross-Section to be used as initial model input.
    The structure and density of all the strata will be manipulated within the constraints of the control data then modeling success may be judged based on the match between the calculated and observed fields.
    Prerequisite Project: 500, 502 or 512

    Purchase Course

    In this project, you will use 2D magnetic modeling software in an onshore setting to calculate the 2D magnetic effect of mineralized geologic strata in the near surface.
    Susceptibility and depth control from sources such as surface geology and wells will be used to build a Geologic Cross-Section to be used as initial model input.
    The structure and susceptibility of all the strata will be manipulated within the constraints of the control data then modeling success may be judged based on the match between the calculated and observed fields.
    Prerequisite Project: 500, 522 or 523 or 530

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    The fundamental unit of matter is the atom, which is composed of a nucleus consisting of protons and neutrons surrounded by a cloud of electrons. This module discusses the basics of radioactivity and how the decay rate can be described by Poisson statistics. All detectable gamma radiation from earth materials come from the natural decay products of only three elements at the surface ground, These elements, uranium (U), thorium (Th), and potassium (K), can be measure, whether directly or indirectly. We discuss the decay mechanisms of the important radioisotopes for gamma ray surveying. We introduce the concept of disequilibrium. The properties of gamma rays are summarized.

    Learning Objectives

    After completing this module, participants will come to understand:

    • The fundamentals of radioactivity,
    • Be able to describe the different types of radioactive decay,
    • Discuss the statistical nature of radioactive decay and Poisson distributions,
    • Have an understanding of the natural sources of radiation,
    • Learn the importance of disequilibrium, and
    • Have a summary of the properties of gamma rays and how they interact with matter.
    Purchase Course

    The fundamental unit of matter is the atom, which is composed of a nucleus consisting of protons and neutrons surrounded by a cloud of electrons. This module discusses the basics of radioactivity and how the decay rate can be described by Poisson statistics. All detectable gamma radiation from earth materials come from the natural decay products of only three elements at the surface ground, These elements, uranium (U), thorium (Th), and potassium (K), can be measure, whether directly or indirectly. We discuss the decay mechanisms of the important radioisotopes for gamma ray surveying. We introduce the concept of disequilibrium. The properties of gamma rays are summarized.

    Learning Objectives

    After completing this module, participants will come to understand:

    • The fundamentals of radioactivity,
    • Be able to describe the different types of radioactive decay,
    • Discuss the statistical nature of radioactive decay and Poisson distributions,
    • Have an understanding of the natural sources of radiation,
    • Learn the importance of disequilibrium, and
    • Have a summary of the properties of gamma rays and how they interact with matter.
    Purchase Course

    Radiometric Surveying is commonly used in mineral exploration for geologic mapping, uranium detection and delineation of various intrusives. The objective to conducting radiometric surveys via airborne spectrometer is to determine and map natural radioactive emanations, called gamma rays, from rocks and soils. All detectable gamma radiation from earth materials come from the natural decay products of only three elements at the surface ground. They are uranium (U), thorium (Th), and potassium (K). In order to acquire and process data for viable and useful data for geological interpretation, there are several calibrations that have to be considered.

    Learning Objectives

    After completing this module, participants will understand the four principal calibrations for an airborne spectrometer:

    • High altitude test flights to determine the cosmic background,
    • Radioactive pads to determine the stripping coefficients,
    • Range flights to determine the attenuation and sensitivity coefficients and
    • Radon background calibration flights to determine the radon coefficients via the upward detector or spectral ratio methods.
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    The objective to conducting radiometric surveys is to determine and map natural radioactive emanations, called gamma rays, from rocks and soils. All detectable gamma radiation from earth materials come from the natural decay products of only three elements at the surface ground; uranium (U), thorium (Th), and potassium (K). Gamma ray data are inherently noisy due to the statistical nature of radioactive decay.  However, the properties of the noise are well understood, and can be described by Poisson statistics as discussed in module RS101. Radiometric Surveying is commonly used in mineral exploration for geologic mapping, uranium detection and delineation of various intrusives. This module covers the standard corrections to process radiometric data to acquire viable data for a geological interpretation.

    Learning Objectives

    After completing this module, participants will have understood all of the standard corrections to process radiometric data:

    • Energy Calibration,
    • Spectral Smoothing,
    • Dead Time Correction,
    • Aircraft and Cosmic Background Correction,
    • Radon Background Correction,
    • Stripping Correction,
    • Height Correction,
    • Conversion To Concentrations, and
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    The module starts with ratios. Looking at the ratios of radioelements is a useful tool. Many of the factors that affect radioelement concentration are present in all windows, such as soil moisture, vegetation and topography. By taking the ratio of two different radioelements these factors essentially cancel out, leaving a more robust geological signal. Next, the discussion takes you to ternary radioelement maps.

    After that we will look at potassium, uranium, and thorium sources. We cover using radiometric data for geological mapping. Finally, we will cover some applications of radiometric data, including mineral deposits, petroleum exploration, radon risk mapping and manmade sources.

    Learning Objectives

    After completing this module, participants will have gained insight in the application of the radioelements in exploration:

      • Ratios,
      • Ternary radioelement maps,
      •  Radiometric data for geological mapping,
      • Data application in mineral & petroleum exploration,
      • Radon risk mapping
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    Eight general types of gravity and magnetic surveys (including gradiometry surveys) are described below. Each type of survey is acquired in a unique operating environment and for a specific purpose. The key to acquiring good quality data, or recognizing the quality of data already in hand, is having a knowledge of suitable survey design and specifications.

    The design of a new survey must take into account not only land accessibility (permits, leases, etc), but also terrain conditions and the type, size, and depth of the geologic target. A relatively local target can produce an anomaly with wavelengths from 6 to 24 times the target depth, so the survey bounds must extend outward to cover the anomaly plus some background values. A regional survey should extend outward to some known geologic feature, such as a basin-edge outcrop.

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    There is controversy when it comes to data contouring and most of the time one is left wondering “what is my best option?” In this module we discuss the relative benefits of having an interpreter contour “by hand” vs. letting a computer control the contouring of random data points.  In order for the computer to contour a surface containing the data points, an optimum grid interval must be specified. Techniques to determine the best grid spacing for contouring the data points are discussed in Module #15 Grid Spacing.  The computer-contouring results are fast, but even if the grid spacing and gridding method selected are well-chosen, the resulting contours may depict false structures, gradients, and trends. Hand-contouring is most definitely slower, but results are as accurate as the data points allow and as geologically meaningful as the interpreter’s experienced eye permits.

    Learning Objectives:

    After completing this module, you’ll be able to:

    • Have a good understanding of the hand vs. computer-contouring mechanics
    • Have a working knowledge why good contouring skills will result in the best interpreted basement map
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    This module illustrates the importance of acquiring gravity and magnetic data at the appropriate spacing, then gridding that data using a grid increment to capture the shortest appropriate wavelength (Nyquist frequency) without introducing longer wavelengths (aliasing). It will also be emphasized that even though there are numerous gridding algorithms, it is the interpreter’s responsibility to honor the data and keep its integrity intact by virtue of selecting the appropriate gridding method and parameters.

    Learning Objectives

    After completing this Module, you will be able to:
    • Learn the importance of acquiring gravity and magnetic data at appropriate spacing.
    • Understand what is the “Nyquist Frequency” and “Aliasing”.
    • Learn more about software gridding packages.
    • Describe the impact proper grid spacing selection can have when carefully chosen to honor the information from the datasets.

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    In general, a map is an aggregate of elements having a common relationship in a distinct space or environment.  The maps use coordinate systems to translate three-dimensional real surfaces into dimensional platforms. There are several types of maps such as climate maps, political maps, street maps,weather maps and geophysical maps just to name a few. These maps are tools to relate information, to transfer knowledge and to aid individuals in making executive decisions.  Inaccurate and incomplete maps can hinder information, reduce the ability to communicate our ideas to others, and may cause great frustration.  It is crucial and essential to geophysical interpreters to be able to read and identify maps.  The maps are more beneficial if they include the following elements: the projection information, a title block and a legend (map key).

    Learning Objectives

    After completing this Module, you will be able to:

    • Describe the most commonly used maps in geology and geophysics.
    • Understand some basic principles of geodesy.
    • Know the importance of the map title and legend
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    This module consists of three (3) exercises (videos) and a well-based Project. The series develops methods for determining contour values, shape, orientation and spacing of contours.

    The video exercises will give you an opportunity to develop an understanding of the options in data contouring.

    • Method 1 – contour a set of random data points,
    • Method 2 – constructing an isopach map from data points with knowing limited geologic information,
    • Method 3 – constructing an isopach map from cross-section profiles and having an understanding of the geologic processes.

    Project ST 120M3

    This contouring project brings ST120 – Method 3 into practice. A series of nine (9) cross-sections are presented. The cross-sections are based on 114 wells in Southwestern Louisiana. The area covered extends from the Sabine River to St Martin & Iberia Parishes.

    Project Location Map is provided as a location reference. Project Basemap (PDF) provided can be downloaded. Recommended for mapping is 11”x17” paper. You are asked to hand-contour two maps: depth & thickness. Eight (8) steps are outlined.

    Learning Objectives

    The main learning objective of the series is to leave you with an understanding of utilizing foundation (example in this case: geologic) processes to make better contour maps.

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