Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is widely used in geological, hydrological, archaeological, engineering and forensic investigations to detect buried objects in the subsurface. GPR has arguably the highest spatial resolution of any geophysical imaging method, approaching centimeters under the right conditions. Learning objectives After completing this module, you will learn: Principles of operation of the GPR system The physical properties that influence the GPR signals GPR [...]
Electrical resistivity techniques are routinely used to solve hydrogeological (e.g., finding water bearing units (aquifers)), environmental (e.g., delineating groundwater plumes), and engineering (e.g., locating subsurface voids) problems. Electrical methods measure the flow of electric current in the ground thereby investigating electrical properties of the subsurface. The resulting subsurface geoelectrical image (represented as changes in electrical resistivity with depth) can be interpreted in terms of lithology [...]
Module GA 101 concentrates on the tectonics and propagation of thrusts such as the Andean style & Himalayan style. Structural terms are set forth; describing the orientation of fold limbs, circular outcrop patterns typical for both domes and basins, and monoclines the result of movement along buried faults. The module covers the basic fault concepts, recognizing detachments, and complex geometries. The strike slip faults are [...]
Module GA 102 concentrates on the tectonics and propagation of contacts and unconformities. Structural styles of the normal fault concept are covered. The conformable and intrusive contacts are described. Throughout the one hour video, surface and seismic examples are discussed. This module is for someone who has interest in a geologic review of terms and structural styles or for the individual seeking an understanding of [...]
Module GA 103 concentrates on sequence stratigraphy models and interpretation. Unconformable relations in the sedimentary strata are critical for determining timing and events. It is important in interpretation to recognize clastic facies seismic patterns. Various models as related to geologic and seismic patterns are discussed. The seismic interpretation technique is outlined with examples. This one hour video module is for someone who has interest in [...]
Well tie is a necessary step in seismic interpretation. It is done to ground truth seismic data; to extract a wavelet for seismic inversion, synthetic modeling, or seismic calibration. Seismic amplitude calibration to true amplitude is required before any amplitude analysis and interpretation such as AVO.
Surface seismic data is the most used data type in hydrocarbon exploration and development. Yet, it has some major shortcomings. These shortcomings stem from the requirement that during data acquisition, the sources and receivers are always positioned at or close to the surface. This requirement imposes major limitations on the acquired surface seismic data. The above limitations can be addressed by properly designed borehole seismic [...]
The Well Log is a Bore Hole Image. It is record of a continuous in-situ down hole measurement of the physical and structural properties of a penetrated formation. Modern day technology in oil/gas/mineral exploration utilizes a variety of probes (instruments) either singularly or in combination (stacked). Each of these well log types is utilized based on the objective selected for solving the exploration and development [...]